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Investors should continue to seek higher risk premia from yields for holding higher duration over the medium term




It is evident now that economic growth is slowing appreciably around the world. While this is widely acknowledged by now, one suspects the extent of the eventual slowdown is still not. There seems to be momentum to the slowdown given the context of more restrictive fiscal policy now and the fact that central banks will widely keep monetary conditions tighter for longer.

While China is loosening policy on the margin, there are multiple constraints here both on the quantum of easing possible and the net effect of the same. Thus the only (temporary) respite to the downward momentum to global growth could potentially be from a possible cessation of war and a consequent sharp correction in energy prices (this is mentioned as a possible scenario here and not a view).

Barring that, one would expect the higher momentum data slowdown to eventually feed into the ‘stickier’ parts of the world economy. As one example of this, concurrent data on US housing sales has turned down significantly. Signs that this is percolating into new construction are very much there.

One would think it a matter of time that the housing slowdown starts showing up in house prices and from there as a negative wealth effect for consumers. This in turn may weigh further on discretionary consumption (including for services) which is already slowing. The construction slowdown alongside the ongoing manufacturing weakness would show eventually in the labour market and from there into wages.

The last of these is the slowest moving piece in the chain just described. However this is precisely the shoe the Fed is waiting to see drop, and that is the reason that policy rates will have to be held higher for longer. An implication of this also is that while sovereign rates may already have done the heavy-lifting, corporate bond spreads in developed markets (DMs) appear way too sanguine given the macro context described here.

One can think about India’s own growth momentum in context of slowdown spreading to stickier parts of the world. We have two distinct advantages going for us. One, a long period issue on local corporate and bank balance sheets is now behind us. This has been a significant cyclical drag over the past many years which has now turned into a tailwind.

Two, India’s total monetary and fiscal policy response to Covid has been measured and responsible. This implies that there is very little overhang to deal with of excess stimulus from the past unlike in the case of many developed economies. This is also the main reason behind our view that India needn’t follow the US lockstep in monetary tightening and that we can afford for our effective overnight rate to peak below 6 per cent in this cycle.

Returning to point, however, the cycle and policy tailwinds are ensuring that we now grow more robustly than many other nations around the world. The relative growth advantage will likely sustain going forward.

However, the absolute growth acceleration that we have witnessed over the past few months will have to slow reflecting the weakening global growth. This starts through the export channel, as it already has, and then proceeds to impact local consumption and investments down the line.

Stabler rate hike expectations in DMs from here

Global rate hike expectations were in constant iteration mode (read being continually revised upwards) for most of this year till mid-June. Post that things took a breather. For a while as signs of economic breakage started to become clearer, markets began running somewhat ahead of themselves by not just lowering their terminal rate forecasts but in some cases even building significant rate cuts for late 2023 in some developed markets. As an example, around mid-July approximately 80 bps rate cuts were being priced in for the US next year.

Over the past few weeks, on the back of active central bank pushes against this idea helped with continued upward pressure on European inflation, ‘sense’ seems to have returned. This has been evidenced in both terminal rate pricing going up as well as an expectation now that they will be at higher levels for longer.

This is now more consistent with the message delivered, as an example, by Fed Chair Powell in his recent Jackson Hole speech. In Europe, policy tightening expectations had built in significantly till mid-June but then unwound appreciably on the back of weaker economic data.

However, with inflation concerns going up further and with ECB seemingly showing firm resolve to contain it, rate hike expectations have sharply risen again. These gyrations are best reflected in the movement of German 2-year bond yields over the past few months. The UK has also seen very sharp recent additions to rate hike expectations from the market.

Given all of the recent building back of rate hike expectations, and with clear signs of economic breakage becoming more pronounced, it is unlikely that incoming data leads to more than, say, a 25 bps upward change in expectations from the current levels in most major DMs. Pricing is already for peak rates in this cycle being significantly higher than what are termed as long term neutral rates and thus incoming data needs to very sharply surprise for this to move even higher by a significant step.

Turning home, rate hike expectations with respect to RBI seem to also now be stabilising. To recap, these expectations had become quite unanchored post the inter-meeting hike in May. While we had held on to our view of peak effective rates in this cycle at sub-6 per cent (basis our reading of the current global macro cycle as well as India’s total, relatively modest, post Covid policy response), market pricing was far in excess of this at ‘peak fear’ after the May event.

However, now here as well market seems to be converging towards a peak repo rate of 6-6.25 per cent which is much closer to what we have been thinking. Our view of peak effective overnight rate of 5.75 per cent is consistent with a terminal repo of 6 per cent with overnight rates round the SDF, 25 bps below.

Tighter global financial conditions & possible implications

While DM sovereign rates may be more range bound from here, this doesn’t mean that we are done with tightening in global financial conditions. As rates stay tighter for longer in the face of economic breakage, this may get evidenced more in the usual risk off trades like stronger DM currencies and wider corporate bond spreads (DM corporate bond spreads are still relatively well behaved and seem to have significant room to expand).

Many emerging market (EM) bond yields are also like ‘spread’ assets for global capital. Thus a tighter for longer policy environment in DMs will entail stricter financial conditions and hence a widening of spreads. This may impact yields in many EMs as well.

Over the first half of the year when the world was readjusting its expectation of global monetary tightening, the linkage to Indian bonds was largely through interest rate swaps rather than outright bond selling by foreign investors in a big way.

Most of the capital outflows were instead from the equities markets. This probably reflects the fact that active foreign interest has been missing from Indian bonds over the past few years and hence the amount of rebalancing out may also consequently be lower. Portfolio rebalancing on possible another bout of risk aversion ahead may not impact India’s bonds significantly.

Also with spread between bond and swap having opened up (5 year government bond yields were around 60 bps over 5 year swap yields at the time of writing), there is room for this to compress without significantly impacting underlying bond yields.

However, this doesn’t mean that local bonds are immune to global financial conditions tightening. This needs to be still respected, in our view. As an example, lately the local bond market is abuzz with expectations that India is on the cusp of being included in at least one of the large global sovereign bond indices.

The argument heard is that this time around this is on ‘pull’ from investors desiring some diversification to their EM exposures. Hence it may go through even without associated facilitators that required leeway on taxation which apparently our policymakers were against.

The expectation is that the while flows associated with actual index inclusion may take some time, and the weight assigned to Indian bonds in the index itself would only gradually go up, other ‘fast money’ flow may pre-empt this and already start coming in.

Basis this expectation, one has seen a bull flattening over the past few sessions thereby further flattening the 5 to 10 year yield spread, as local participants have taken positions in longer duration bonds anticipating this announcement.

We have no idea how far this can stretch in the near term. However, nothing changes to our underlying view that if there’s one point of concern that bond markets ought to have over the medium term, it is the amount of duration supply.

This is both on account of higher than pre-pandemic averages on likely fiscal deficit over the next few years as well as a shift higher in annual bond maturities over the next many years from what was the case in the past.

Even adjusted for nominal growth in participant balance sheets, this is a significant step up in duration supply and likely needs support from a demand standpoint. Absent offshore investors, RBI would have eventually stepped in to buy bonds as a means to expand its balance sheet.

With index inclusion, offshore investors will buy bonds and RBI will get the dollars to expand balance sheet. Then RBI wouldn’t need to buy bonds. Either way, over the medium term, the eventual effect on bond yields may be similar.

Thus the issue of duration absorption may still persist after the initial euphoria on index inclusion subsides. Also this would be in what is a tighter global financing environment. In India too even as our peak rate expectations are in place, we would expect RBI to hold them there for longer.

Thus, investors should continue to want higher risk premia from yields for holding higher duration over the medium term. Also given how unforgiving the global environment is, we don’t want to be too ‘tactical’ with our portfolio strategies by trying to chase the bull flattening. All told then, we continue to find the most value in 4 -5 year government bonds.

(The author is Head-Fixed Income at IDFC AMC.)

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Sitharaman calls for proactive govt-industry alliances towards developed India



Finance Minister highlights policy stability, facilitative policies as key attractions for investors looking to India.

Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman on Friday asked industry to leverage opportunities at national and global levels through government-industry partnerships as the country gears up to realize the goal of emerging as a developed country by 2047, drawing attention to India’s policy stability, corruption-free decision-making, facilitative government policies, and robust legal framework which in consonance make India an attractive destination for business. “There is a big role for the private sector for making this happen and the government would be a facilitator and enabler in the process,” Sitharaman said speaking on “co-creating the future responsibly: role of business,” at the annual business summit 2024 of the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII).

Articulating the vision for new India, the Finance Minister outlined four key opportunities for growth in India which extends to all segments of the economy. The first, she highlighted, was the compelling India growth story which is expected to contribute significantly to global growth, as recognized and affirmed by global agencies such as the IMF and S&P. The large consumer market which is expected to double by 2031, a rise in consumption spending, and a secular rise in spending on financial services are the other triggers which would ensure that the country would continue to remain the fastest growing economy in the future, Sitharaman said.

Elaborating further on the subject, the Finance Minister noted that according to the RBI and the Economic Survey, India has graduated from the twin balance sheet problem of the past to the twin balance sheet advantage which has led to vibrancy in the market thereby propelling investment expansion by corporates on one hand and willingness and capacity of banks to lend. Secondly, the demographic dividend would be with the country for the next 30 years and dependency level is at a historic low and when complemented with skill development, through public-private partnership, inclusive of areas such as artificial intelligence, big data etc., this is a sure shot measure to bring prosperity and raise consumer demand, Sitharaman observed.

The Finance Minister also highlighted India’s transition towards green energy and a sustainable future as other drivers of new markets and new demand. “The solar push by the government as well as an impetus towards green hydrogen and green ammonia would also provide significant job opportunities to the youth,” she maintained. Alluding to the pressing need to increase manufacturing competitiveness, Sitharaman called for greater sophistication and improved productivity. The government would provide supportive policies for India to be a part of the global value chain.

Sitharaman underlined India’s advantage of figuring among the top investment destinations which pitched the country in a position to take advantage of global investors who are attempting to derisk their operations as a result of the China plus one policy. This would also help the country to become self-reliant. She also referred to the PLI scheme which has contributed significantly towards transforming the mobile and electronic sectors and creating value addition in smartphones. Noting India’s role as a preferred destination with over 50 percent of global capability centers having based their operations in the country.

The industry body has also worked with the government on a range of issues such as the reduction of corporate tax rates, extending GST compliance dates during the Covid period, and adopting a capex-led growth strategy, said CII President R. Dinesh and complimented the finance minister for reining in the fiscal deficit with a laser focus. Former Chairman, ICICI and chairman, National Bank for Financing Infrastructure and Development KV Kamath, was conferred with the CII President’s award for 2024 for his exemplary contribution to industry and society.

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Apple under spotlight as OpenAI, Google raise AI standards



OpenAI on May 13 announced GPT-4o, its maiden artificial intelligence model with multimodal capabilities to reason across audio, visual, and text. A day after, on May 14, Google kicked off its annual developers-centric conference (Google I/O) with announcements focused on AI integration with its platforms and services, including Android and Search. These two technology behemoths have set the bar high with AI-focused events, but all eyes are now on Apple, which has scheduled its annual worldwide developers conference (WWDC) for June 10.

Apple has been trailing in the AI space while the competition has made significant strides. OpenAI, for example, made its most advanced GPT-4o model free for all. It also announced a dedicated app for its AI chatbot ChatGPT for Apple’s macOS. While the ChatGPT app has been available on iPhones, the macOS app brings deeper integration into the desktop platform. With the macOS app, ChatGPT users will be able to take a screenshot of what’s on the display and share it directly with the chatbot for discussion. This gives OpenAI an early mover advantage in Apple’s ecosystem, especially due to the lack of a native alternative.

Apple’s exploration of the AI space, reportedly, began years ago. However, the company accelerated the development process only after the AI technology jumped onto the mainstream, fueled by OpenAI’s ChatGPT, Microsoft’s Copilot, and Google’s Gemini.

Apple is playing a catch-up game with big technology rivals in the AI space, but it may change come June 10 when it is poised to lay out a strategy for AI at WWDC. A hint of it was made at Apple’s May 7 launch event where it debuted the iPad Pro and iPad Air, with the former featuring its next-generation M4 silicon with a new 16-core neural engine. The company said this new neural engine or Neural Processing Unit (NPU) makes the “M4 an outrageously powerful chip for AI.” This was the first instance where Apple mentioned “AI” in its event.

Earlier, at Apple’s quarterly earnings call on May 2, Apple’s CEO Tim Cook pointed out generative artificial intelligence as the company’s next frontier. He said Apple continues to make significant investments in generative AI and that the company will share “some very exciting things” soon.

These instances along with the fact that researchers at Apple have been continuously publishing papers on new generative AI tools suggest that Apple is poised to enter the AI space very soon. However, if it will be able to catch up with the competition is to be seen. For context, Bloomberg has reported that Apple has been in talks with Google and OpenAI to bring AI features to iOS 18 for iPhones. A recent report from Bloomberg stated that Apple has closed in on an agreement with OpenAI to use its AI technology on the iPhone. According to the report, both the companies are finalising terms for a pact to use ChatGPT features in iOS 18, Apple’s next operation.

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Paytm added to small-cap index by MSCI, attracting potential inflows



One97 Communications, the parent company of the popular fintech brand Paytm, has achieved a significant milestone by being included in the MSCI Emerging Markets Small Cap Index. This inclusion is indicative of growing confidence among both domestic and international investors in Paytm, evidenced by substantial stake increases from foreign portfolio investors (FPIs), domestic investors, and prominent Mutual Funds such as Mirae and Nippon India Mutual Fund.

With Paytm being one of the 29 stocks included in the MSCI Small Cap Index, the move is expected to drive USD 273 million in inflows, which is crucial for benchmarking Indian companies on the international stage. The inclusion comes as part of MSCI’s routine review, aligning with evolving market conditions, scheduled for May 31, 2024. MSCI, a global leader in equity, fixed-income, and hedge fund indices, plays a pivotal role in shaping global investment trends.

During the March quarter of 2023-24, Indian mutual funds notably increased their holdings in Paytm. Mirae Mutual Funds elevated their shareholding to 2.39 crore shares (3.76 per cent), while Nippon Mutual Funds raised their stake to 1.66 per cent from 1.05 per cent over the same period. Consequently, domestic institutional investors (DIIs) witnessed an increase in stake to 6.86 per cent from 6.06 per cent.

The shareholding pattern available with the stock exchanges indicates that domestic mutual funds boosted their stake in Paytm by 1.77 per cent, reaching 6.15 per cent from 4.99 per cent at the end of the December quarter of the fiscal year. Retail investors also saw an uptick in shareholding, rising from 12.85 per cent to 14.53 per cent sequentially, while Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) witnessed an increase from 0.67 per cent to 0.85 per cent.

Simultaneously, FPI shareholding in Paytm surged by 2.49 per cent to 20.19 per cent in Q4-2023-24, with new investors including Tiger Pacific Capital, Societe Generale, and Norway’s Government Pension Fund Global investing in the stock. Notably, in February this year, Morgan Stanley Asia (Singapore) Pte. – ODI acquired 50 lakh shares of Paytm worth Rs 243.6 crore in a bulk deal, as confirmed by the company.

Abhilash Pagaria, head of Nuvama Alternative and Quantitative Research, expressed bullish sentiments on India’s equity markets, attributing it to active participation from mutual funds and High Net Worth Individuals (HNIs)/retailers. Paytm currently boasts 60.4 per cent holdings by FIIs as of the March quarter of 2023-24.

Following NPCI’s approval on March 14, 2024, to onboard OCL as a Third-Party Application Provider (TPAP) on the Multi Payment Service Provider API Model, Paytm has expedited integration with Axis Bank, HDFC Bank, State Bank of India (SBI), and YES Bank. All four banks are now operational on the TPAP, facilitating a streamlined process for Paytm to transition user accounts to these Payment Service Provider (PSP) banks.

Moreover, Paytm is directing its focus towards UPI Lite wallet, targeting users preferring wallets for low-value everyday payments. Paytm UPI Lite serves as an on-device wallet, allowing users to store funds and make hassle-free payments without requiring a PIN. It promises lightning-fast transactions that never fail, offering convenience and efficiency to users on the go.

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RBI warns NBFCs to stay alert for financial system risks



Deputy Governor Swaminathan J of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) emphasized the imperative for Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs) to bolster their governance and assurance functions while remaining vigilant against potential risks and vulnerabilities. Speaking at an interaction in Mumbai, attended by about 280 participants from over 100 NBFCs, Deputy Governors M Rajeshwar Rao and Swaminathan J addressed the attendees.

The conference, primarily targeting Heads of Assurance Functions such as Chief Compliance Officers, Chief Risk Officers, and Heads of Internal Audit of select NBFCs, focused on the critical role of these functions in ensuring the stability and resilience of the financial sector. Swaminathan J underscored the heightened exposure of NBFCs to various risks, including cybersecurity threats and operational vulnerabilities. He articulated the RBI’s expectations regarding assurance functions, emphasizing the need for independent and effective oversight mechanisms.

Highlighting specific risks such as cybersecurity threats, operational challenges, credit risks arising from rule-based credit models, and liquidity risks, Swaminathan J conveyed the RBI’s supervisory expectations from regulated entities. The emphasis was on fostering fair and transparent conduct towards customers while ensuring robust risk management practices within NBFCs.

Deputy Governor M Rajeshwar Rao also contributed to the discourse by shedding light on contextual issues relevant to assurance functions. He discussed topics such as third-party dependencies, operational risks, customer conduct, and transparency in operations. Rao elaborated on the transformative journey witnessed in the Indian financial landscape and the significant contribution of the NBFC sector to this evolution.

The conference, attended by senior officials including Executive Directors S C Murmu, Saurav Sinha, J K Dash, and Rohit Jain, alongside representatives from the Regulation and Supervision departments of the RBI, featured technical sessions on the three Assurance Functions led by Chief General Managers of the RBI. These sessions aimed to delve into the nuances of governance, risk management, and internal audit within the NBFC sector.

Additionally, presentations were made by Heads of Assurance Functions from select NBFCs, offering insights into best practices and challenges encountered in their operational domains. The overarching theme of the event, ‘Resilient Financial System – Role of Effective Assurance Functions’, underscored the pivotal role of these functions in fostering stability and resilience within the financial ecosystem.

The conference, part of a series of supervisory engagements organized by the RBI over the past year with its regulated entities, exemplified the central bank’s commitment to proactive regulatory oversight. By facilitating dialogue and knowledge-sharing among stakeholders, such initiatives aim to enhance risk awareness, promote adherence to regulatory standards, and fortify the overall integrity of the financial system.

Previous iterations of this series included a conference for Heads of Assurance Functions of Scheduled Commercial Banks held in January 2024. The recurrence of such engagements underscores the regulatory focus on fostering robust governance frameworks and risk management practices across diverse segments of the financial sector.

In summary, the interaction between RBI Deputy Governors and Heads of Assurance Functions of NBFCs served as a platform to underscore the importance of governance, risk management, and internal audit in safeguarding the stability and resilience of the financial system. Through collaborative efforts and proactive engagement, regulators and industry stakeholders endeavour to promote a sound and resilient financial ecosystem conducive to sustainable growth and stability.

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Government e-marketplace records strong start in new fiscal with INR 8.57 lakh cr GMV



GeM, launched in 2016 by the commerce ministry, aims to bridge buyer-seller gaps through a digital marketplace, enhancing procurement across sectors.

The Government e-Marketplace (GeM) has emerged as a cornerstone in revolutionizing public procurement in India, achieving a remarkable milestone by surpassing Rs 8.57 lakh crore in Gross Merchandise Value (GMV) as of April 30, 2024. This achievement marks the highest GMV recorded since its inception, underscoring the platform’s pivotal role in fostering transparent and inclusive trade practices within the country.

Launched on August 9, 2016, by the commerce ministry, GeM was conceived with the vision of establishing a digital marketplace that bridges the gap between buyers and sellers, facilitating seamless procurement processes across various sectors. The platform’s exponential growth trajectory is evidenced by its remarkable performance during the financial year 2023-24, where it surpassed Rs 4 lakh crore in GMV. As the new financial year, 2024-25, commenced, GeM witnessed a robust start with GMV soaring to Rs 60,094 crore in the inaugural month alone, according to insights shared during an internal meeting at the commerce ministry.

The significance of GeM extends beyond the procurement of goods, as it also serves as a conduit for the acquisition of services. As of April 30, 2024, the GMV of services on GeM has reached an impressive Rs 3.56 lakh crore since its inception. Notably, during the financial year 2023-24, the GMV of services amounted to Rs 2.07 lakh crore, indicating a substantial uptick in demand. The contribution of services to GeM’s GMV in the first month of the financial year 2024-25 stands at Rs 46,460 crore, reflecting the growing reliance on the platform for service-related transactions.

One of GeM’s notable achievements lies in its support for Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs), which form the backbone of India’s economy. Over 9.26 lakh MSEs are registered on the GeM portal, having received orders exceeding Rs 4.01 lakh crore. This accounts for more than 46.93% of GeM’s cumulative orders by GMV since its inception, highlighting the platform’s role in empowering MSEs and fostering their growth in the competitive marketplace.

Furthermore, GeM has been instrumental in empowering women entrepreneurs, with 1.63 lakh MSEs led by women being registered on the platform. These enterprises have received over 9.20 lakh orders amounting to Rs 24,369 crore till April 30, 2024, underscoring GeM’s commitment to promoting gender inclusivity and economic empowerment.

In addition to supporting established businesses, GeM has also emerged as a catalyst for fostering innovation and entrepreneurship in India. The platform has played a pivotal role in supporting over 24,181 startups in establishing their presence in the Indian marketplace. These startups have successfully processed orders exceeding Rs 24,369 crore in GMV, signalling GeM’s role as a facilitator of growth and innovation within the startup ecosystem.

The success of GeM can be attributed to its user-centric approach, robust infrastructure, and commitment to fostering a conducive environment for trade and commerce. By leveraging technology to streamline procurement processes, GeM has not only enhanced efficiency but has also promoted transparency, accountability, and fair competition in public procurement.

As GeM continues to chart new milestones and facilitate greater participation from diverse stakeholders, it reaffirms its status as a catalyst for economic growth, empowerment, and inclusive development in India’s digital landscape.

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International Relations

French Summit sees tech & aero deals, TCS & Motherson invest



The Choose France Summit strengthens economic ties between India and France through significant investment commitments by Indian companies, highlighting their growing partnership.

Indian companies made significant commitments at the Choose France Summit held in Paris this week, signaling a deepening of economic ties between the two nations. Motherson, a prominent player in manufacturing, announced its investment to acquire a French company, positioning France as the central hub for its global aerospace strategy. Additionally, IT services giant TCS pledged to establish a Global Artificial Intelligence Centre in Paris.

The French Embassy in India shared these developments on its social media platform, highlighting the importance of these investments. Overall, about Rs 1.35 lakh crore of new investments were announced at this year’s summit, with the Indian projects contributing substantially to this figure.

President Emmanuel Macron met with Indian CEOs during a special session dedicated to India, underscoring the growing partnership between the two countries. He welcomed the increasing Indian investments in France and emphasized the potential for further collaboration.

The Choose France Summit, an annual flagship business event hosted by President Macron, aims to promote France’s economic attractiveness and encourage international investment. This year, India was honored as the first-ever country of focus, with a dedicated roundtable and participation from leading Indian CEOs.

Among the Indian business leaders present at the summit were Sunil Bharti Mittal, Chairman of Bharti Enterprises, N Chandrasekaran, Chairman of Tata Sons, and Pankaj Munjal, Chairman and MD of Hero Cycles, among others. Their presence underscored India’s keen interest in expanding its footprint in France.

France has positioned itself as the most attractive European economy for foreign investments, with favorable economic conditions such as lower inflation, ongoing reforms, and reduced tax rates. This has made the country an appealing destination for foreign investors, including Indian companies like L&T Technology, TCS, and Tata Tech, which have already established a presence in France.

Since its inception in 2018, the Choose France Summit has played a pivotal role in promoting France’s economic attractiveness on the global stage. Convened by the President and members of the Government, the summit brings together leaders from multinational corporations to explore investment opportunities across France.

Last year’s summit witnessed substantial investment commitments totaling over 13 billion Euros for 28 projects, highlighting the event’s effectiveness in attracting international capital. With the continued success of the Choose France Summit and the deepening economic partnership between India and France, both countries stand to benefit from enhanced collaboration and investment opportunities in the years to come.

The Choose France Summit serves as a platform for fostering dialogue and cooperation between France and its international partners. With India being honored as the country of focus this year, the summit has further solidified the bilateral ties between the two nations. The presence of prominent Indian CEOs underscores the mutual interest in exploring opportunities for investment and collaboration. As France continues to enhance its economic attractiveness through reforms and favorable policies, Indian companies are increasingly looking to leverage these opportunities for growth and expansion in the European market.

The Choose France Summit plays a crucial role in facilitating this exchange and driving economic cooperation.

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